What is the role of caffeine in autophagy?

What is the role of caffeine in autophagy?

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  1. Autophagy is our cells’ self-digestive mechanism that recycles waste material and old proteins as energy. The autophagy process has been linked to protective benefits against neurodegenerative diseases in the brain like Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and dementia. Fasting-induced autophagy [ https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568163718301478 ] has also been shown to dramatically increase the amount autophagosomes (organelles that carry out recycling of cellular components during autophagy) in the liver, heart [ https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15548627.2015.1063768 ], muscle [ https://europepmc.org/abstract/med/23964069 ] and even brain [ https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.4161/auto.6.6.12376 ] tissue during the fasted state.
    Recent research suggests that chronic disruption of the autophagy processes can be linked to numerous negative health outcomes. Researchers are now trying to unlock what can hack this autophagy process for increased longevity.
    Fasted State
    When you are fast for ~12 hours or more, you enter a metabolic state called ketosis. In this state, your body starts to break down and burn fat. Some of this fat is used by the liver to produce ketone bodies. Ketone bodies, or ketones, serve as an alternative energy source for your brain cells and cells in other tissues when glucose isn’t readily available.
    When the body is depleted of glucose or sugar, the insulin signaling pathway and mTOR pathways that are responsible for cellular growth are inhibited or in other words “temporarily turned off.” This inhibition of the “Mammalian target of rapamycin” or mTOR pathway signals to the body that the genes responsible for cellular growth can take a break, while the genes responsible for fat metabolism, stress resistance and damage repair should be turned on through the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway.
    Caffeine’s Effect on Autophagy
    A study published in the journal [ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25268764 ]Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication [ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25268764 ] investigated the power of caffeine to induce autophagy in the skeletal muscle of rats. The researchers concluded that caffeine promoted AMPK-dependent autophagy through calcium-mediated pathways in the skeletal muscle.
    This does not …


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